Geography

Wildlife of India – Specialised Projects for Wildlife

Wildlife of India – Specialised Projects for Wildlife

Specialized Projects for Wildlife

To save the endangered species of animals, Specialised Projects for Wildlife are being implemented with international cooperation (WWF, UNDP, UNEP, and IUCN) as well as on a stand-alone basis.

Some of these Specialised Projects for Wildlife are –

      • Project Tiger
      • Project Elephant
      • Project Rhino
      • Project Crocodile or Crocodile Breeding Program
      • Project Hangul
      • Project Snow Leopard etc.
  • In this post we are going to discuss about two Specialised Projects for Wildlife i.e. Project Tiger and Project Elephant.

Project Tiger

Project Tiger, Specialised Projects for Wildlife

    • A Specialised Projects for Wildlife was Launched on 1st April, 1973 in the Palamau Tiger Reserve, and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a ‘core-buffer’ strategy.
    • It is centrally financed scheme under which 50 tiger reserves have been set up many states. Starting from nine reserves in 1973 the number has now grown up to fifty in 2016.
    • Tiger reserves are governed by the Project Tiger (1973).
    • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
    • It is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
    • Government has set up a Tiger Protection Force under Project Tiger to combat poachers.
    • Project Tiger funds relocation of villagers to minimise human-tiger conflicts.
    • In 1979, there were only 711 tigers left which has rose to 1706 in 2010, after the implementation of the project.

Tiger Reserves – Core and Buffer Zones

    • The various tiger reserves were created in the country based on the ‘core-buffer’ strategy:

a. Core area

    • The core areas are free of all human activities. It has the legal status of a national park or wildlife sanctuary. These areas are notified by the State Government in consultation with an Expert Committee (constituted for that purpose).
    • It is kept free of biotic disturbances and forestry operations like collection of minor forest produce, grazing, and other human disturbances are not allowed within.
    • These areas are required to be kept for the purposes of tiger conservation, without affecting the rights of the Scheduled Tribes or such other forest dwellers.

b. Buffer areas

    • The buffer areas are subjected to ‘conservation-oriented land use’. They comprise forest and non-forest land.
    • It is a multi-purpose use area with twin objectives of providing habitat supplement to spill over population of wild animals from core conservation unit and to provide site specific co-developmental inputs to surrounding villages for relieving their impact on core area.
    • The limits of such areas are determined with the concerned Gram Sabha and an Expert Committee constituted for the purpose.

Objective

    • Reduce factors that lead to the reduction of tiger habitats and to mitigate them by suitable management. The damages done to the habitat were to be rectified so as to facilitate the recovery of the ecosystem to the maximum possible extent.
    • Ensure a viable tiger population for economic, scientific, cultural, aesthetic and ecological values.

Tiger Reserves of India, Tiger reserves of India Map, Studywrap.com

Salient Features

    • Amendment of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 for providing provisions for constitution of the National Tiger Conservation Authority and the Tiger and other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau.
    • 100 % central Assistance to 38 Tiger Reserves for deployment of Tiger Protection Force, comprising ex-army personnel and local workforce.
    • Constitution of the National Tiger Conservation Authority with effect from September 4, 2006.
    • Constitution of multi-disciplinary Tiger and Other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau (Wildlife Crime Control Bureau) with effect from June 6, 2007.
    • Approval accorded for declaring 8 new Tiger Reserves. Notification for Sahyadri Tiger Reserve in Maharashtra has been issued in January, 2011.

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

    • It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change constituted under provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, as amended in 2006, for strengthening tiger conservation.NTCA, National Tiger Conservation Authority, Project Tiger
    • The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2006 provides for creating National Tiger Conservation Authority and Tiger and Other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau (Wildlife Crime Control Bureau).
    • National Tiger Conservation Authority administers Project Tiger. Administration of the tiger reserves will be in accordance with guidelines of NTCA.
Members
      • The National Tiger Conservation Authority is set up under the Chairmanship of the Minister for Environment and Forests.
      • The Authority will have eight experts or professionals having qualifications and experience in wildlife conservation and welfare of people including tribal,
      • Three Members of Parliament of whom two will be elected by the House of the People and one by the Council of States. 
      • The Inspector General of Forests, in charge of project Tiger, will be ex-officio Member Secretary.
Objective of the NTCA
      • Providing statutory authority to Project Tiger so that compliance of its directives become legal.
      • Fostering accountability of Center-State in management of Tiger Reserves, by providing a basis for MoU with States within our federal structure.
      • Providing for an oversight by Parliament.
      • Addressing livelihood interests of local people in areas surrounding Tiger Reserves.
Power and Functions of the NTCA
      • to approve the tiger conservation plan prepared by the State Government
      • evaluate and assess various aspects of sustainable ecology and disallow any ecologically unsustainable land use such as, mining, industry and other projects within the tiger reserves;
      • provide for management focus and measures for addressing conflicts of  men and wild animal and to emphasize on co-existence in forest areas outside the National Parks, sanctuaries or tiger reserve, in the working plan code;
      • provide information on protection measures including future conservation plan, estimation of population of tiger and its natural prey species, status of habitats, disease surveillance, mortality survey, patrolling, reports on untoward happenings and such other management aspects as it may deem fit including future plan conservation;
      • ensure critical support including scientific, information technology and legal support for better implementation of the tiger conservation plan;
      • Facilitate ongoing capacity building programme for skill development of officers and staff of tiger reserves.
      • State level Steering Committees will be set up in the Tiger States under the Chairmanship of respective Chief Ministers. This has been done with a view for ensuring coordination, monitoring and protection of tigers in the States.
      • A provision has been made for the State Governments to prepare a Tiger Conservation Plan.
      • Provision will be made for the States to establish a Tiger Conservation Foundation, based on the good practices emanating from some tiger reserves.

 

Sl.

No.

Name of Tiger Reserve

(Year of creation)

State

Area of the core

(In Sq. Kms.)

Area  of the buffer

(In Sq. Kms.)

Total area

(In Sq.Kms.)

1

Bandipur (1973-74)

Karnataka

872.24

584.06

1456.3

 

2

 

Corbett (1973-74)

Uttarakhand

821.99

466.32

1288.31

Amangarh (buffer of Corbett TR)

Uttar Pradesh

80.60

80.60

3

Kanha (1973-74)

Madhya Pradesh

917.43

1134.361

2051.791

4

Manas (1973-74)

Assam

526.22

2310.88

2837.10

5

Melghat (1973-74)

Maharashtra

1500.49

1268.03

2768.52

6

Palamau (1973-74)

Jharkhand

414.08

715.85

1129.93

7

Ranthambore (1973-74)

Rajasthan

1113.364

297.9265

1411.291

8

Similipal (1973-74)

Odisha

1194.75

1555.25

2750.00

9

Sunderbans (1973-74)

West Bengal

1699.62

885.27

2584.89

10

Periyar (1978-79)

Kerala

881.00

44.00

925.00

11

Sariska (1978-79)

Rajasthan

881.1124

332.23

1213.342

12

Buxa (1982-83)

West Bengal

390.5813

367.3225

757.9038

13

Indravati (1982-83)

Chhattisgarh

1258.37

1540.70

2799.07

14

Namdapha (1982-83)

Arunachal Pradesh

1807.82

245.00

2052.82

15

Dudhwa (1987-88)

Uttar Pradesh

1093.79

1107.9848

2201.7748

16

Kalakad-Mundanthurai (1988-89)

Tamil Nadu

895.00

706.542

1601.542

17

Valmiki (1989-90)

Bihar

598.45

300.93

899.38

18

Pench (1992-93)

Madhya Pradesh

411.33

768.30225

1179.63225

19

Tadoba-Andhari (1993-94)

Maharashtra

625.82

1101.7711

1727.5911

20

Bandhavgarh (1993-94)

Madhya Pradesh

716.903

820.03509

1598.10

21

Panna (1994-95)

Madhya Pradesh

576.13

1021.97

1598.10

22

Dampa (1994-95)

Mizoram

500.00

488.00

988.00

23

Bhadra (1998-99)

Karnataka

492.46

571.83

1064.29

24

Pench (1998-99)

Maharashtra

257.26

483.96

741.22

25

Pakke (1999-2000)

Arunachal Pradesh

683.45

515.00

1198.45

26

Nameri (1999-2000)

Assam

320.00

144.00

464.00

27

Satpura (1999-2000)

Madhya Pradesh

1339.264

794.04397

2133.30797

28

Anamalai (2008-09)

Tamil Nadu

958.59

521.28

1479.87

29

Udanti-Sitanadi (2008-09)

Chattisgarh

851.09

991.45

1842.54

30

Satkosia (2008-09)

Odisha

523.61

440.26

963.87

31

Kaziranga (2008-09)

Assam

625.58

548.00

1173.58

32

Achanakmar (2008-09)

Chattisgarh

626.195

287.822

914.017

33

Dandeli-Anshi (Kali) (2008-09)

Karnataka

814.884

282.63

1097.514

34

Sanjay-Dubri (2008-09)

Madhya Pradesh

812.571

861.931

1674.502

35

Mudumalai (2008-09)

Tamil Nadu

321.00

367.59

688.59

36

Nagarahole (2008-09)

Karnataka

643.35

562.41

1205.76

37

Parambikulam (2008-09)

Kerala

390.89

252.772

643.662

38

Sahyadri (2009-10)

Maharashtra

600.12

565.45

1165.57

39

Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2010-11)

Karnataka

359.10

215.72

574.82

40

Kawal (2012-13)

Telangana

892.23

1123.212

2015.44

41

Sathyamangalam (2013-14)

Tamil Nadu

793.49

614.91

1408.40

42

Mukandra Hills (2013-14)

Rajasthan

417.17

342.82

759.99

43

Nawegaon-Nagzira (2013-14)

Maharashtra

653.674

1241.27

1894.944

44

Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (1982-83)

Andhra Pradesh

2595.72

700.59

3296.31

45

Amrabad (2014)

Telangana

2166.37

445.02

2611.39

46

Pilibhit (2014)

Uttar Pradesh

602.7980

127.4518

730.2498

47

Bor (2014)

Maharashtra

138.12

678.15

816.27

48

Rajaji (2015)

Uttarakhand

819.54

255.63

1075.1

49

Orang (2016)

Assam

79.28

413.18

492.46

50

Kamlang (2016)

Arunachal Pradesh

671.00

112.00

783.00

TOTAL

Specialised Projects for Wildlife

40145.30

32603.72

72749.02

 

Steps Taken by the Government

Legal Steps

      • Amendment of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to Wild Life (Protection) Act, 2006 for providing enabling provisions towards constituting the National Tiger Conservation Authority and the Tiger and Other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau.
      • Enhancement of punishment in cases of offence relating to a tiger reserve or its core area.

Administrative Steps

      • Strengthening of ant poaching activities, including special strategy for monsoon patrolling.
      • State level Steering Committees under the Chairmanship of Chief Ministers and establishment of Tiger Conservation Foundation.
      • Creation of Special Tiger Protection Force (STPF)

Financial Steps

      • Financial and technical help is provided to the States under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes, viz. Project Tiger and Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats.

Reasons for falling number of tigers

      • Pressure on habitatHabitat fragmentation and Habitat destruction: Caused due to large-scale development projects such as dams, industry, mines, railway lines etc.
      • Incessant poaching:Tigers are killed so their body parts can be used for Traditional Chinese Medicine.
      • Invasive species:Destroy the local producers. This has a cascading effect on the food chain. Tigers are the worst hit as they are at the end of the food chain.

 

Project Elephant

Project Elephant, Elephant conservation project, Elephant conservation schemes by Indian Government, Elephant reserves

    • Project Elephant a Specialised Projects for Wildlife elephants, was launched in 1992 by the Government of India Ministry of Environment and Forests to provide financial and technical support of wildlife management efforts by states for their free ranging populations of wild Asian Elephants.
    • In our country there are approximately 30 thousand elephants spread in 16 Elephant states. Maximum number of elephants is in Kerala, followed by Karnataka and Assam.
    • It is a centrally sponsored scheme to assist the States on three key areas
        • Protection of wild elephants, their habitat and corridors
        • Address the issue of man -animal conflict and
        • welfare of domesticated elephants

Objectives

    • To assist states having populations of wild elephants and to ensure long term survival of identified viable populations of elephants in their natural habitats.
    • To mitigate and prevent the increasing conflict between humans and elephants in elephant habitats. It also aims to reduce and remove the pressure of human and domestic livestock grazing and other activities in important elephant habitat.
    • To ensure ecological restoration of the natural elephant habitats and their migratory routes.
    • To promote scientific research on issues related to conservation of elephants and promotion of public awareness and education on these issues.
    • To ensure the proper health care and breeding of domesticated elephants. To facilitate veterinary care and Eco-development for the elephants.
    • Developing scientific and planned management measures for conservation of elephants.
    • Protecting the elephants from poachers, preventing illegal ivory trade and other unnatural causes of death
    • The Project is being mainly implemented in 13 States/UTs, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Small support is also being given to Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh.
    • States are being given financial as well as technical assistance in achieving the objectives of the Project.

Main activities

    • Ecological restoration of existing natural habitats and migratory routes of elephants;
    • Development of scientific and planned management for conservation of elephant habitats and viable population of Wild Asiatic elephants in India;
    • Promotion of measures for mitigation of man elephant conflict in crucial habitats and moderating pressures of human and domestic stock activities in crucial elephant habitats;
    • Strengthening of measures for protection of Wild elephants form poachers and unnatural causes of death;
    • Research on Elephant management related issues;
    • Public education and awareness programmes;
    • Eco-development
    • Veterinary care
    • Elephant Rehabilitation/Rescue Centers

Elephant Reserves

    • A total of 28 elephant reserves covering 58000 km² have been so far notified in India by the state governments.  
    • They cover not only the forest patches of different kinds but also villages, townships, agricultural land, tea plantations and revenue land.
    • Sighbhum Elephant Reserve in Jharkhand was the first reserve to be notified in 2001. Out of 32 ERs, maximum number is in Assam and Odisha with five each.
    • As of 2010, 32 Elephant Reserves extending over about 58,000 sq. km have been formally notified by various State Governments.
    • The list of Elephant Reserves with area and elephant population is as follows:

Specialised Projects for Wildlife

Elephant reserves of Project Elephant in India (2005)

Reserve Name

Range

Estd.

State

Total area (km²)

Population

1

Mayurjharna

East-Central

2002

West Bengal

414

96

2

Singhbhum

East-Central

2001

Jharkhand

4,530

371

3

Mayurbhanj

East-Central

2001

Orissa

3,214

465

4

Sambalpur

East-Central

2002

Orissa

427

336

5

Baitarni

East-Central

 

 

Orissa

1,755

108

6

South Orissa

East-Central

 

Orissa

1,049

138

7

Lemru

East-Central

Chhattisgarh

450

 

8

Badalkhol-Tamorpingla

East-Central

 

Chhattisgarh

4,216

138

9

Kameng

Kameng-Sonitpur

2002

Arunachal Pradesh

1,892

10

Sonitpur

Kameng-Sonitpur

2003

Assam

1,420

612

11

Dihing-Patkai

Eastern-South

2003

Assam

937

295

12

South Arunachal

Eastern-South

Arunachal Pradesh

900+

129

13

Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong

Kaziranga

2003

Assam

3,270

1,940

14

Dhansiri-Lungding

Kaziranga

2003

Assam

2,740

275

15

Intanki

Kaziranga

2005

Nagaland

202

30

16

Chirang-Ripu

North Bengal-Greater Manas

2003

Assam

2,600

658

17

Eastern Dooars 

North Bengal-Greater Manas

2002

West Bengal

978

300-350

18

Garo Hills

Meghalaya

2001

Meghalaya

3,500

1,047

19

Khasi Hills 

Meghalaya

Meghalaya

1,331

383

20

Mysore

 

Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats

2002

Karanataka

6,724

4,452

21

Wayanad

 

Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats

2002

Kerala

1,200

636

22

Nilgiri

Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats

2003

Tamil Nadu

4,663

2,862

23

Rayala

Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats

2003

Andhra Pradesh

766

12

24

Nilambur 

Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats

2002

Kerala

1,419

281

25

Coimbatore

Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghats

2003

Tamil Nadu

566

329

26

Anamalai

Anamalai-Nelliampathy-High Range

2003

Tamil Nadu

1,457

179

27

Anamudi

Anamalai-Nelliampathy-High Range

2002

Kerala

3,728

1,547

28

Periyar

Periyar-Agasthyamalai

2002

Kerala

3,742

1,100

29

Srivilliputtur

Periyar-Agasthyamalai

2003

Tamil Nadu

1,249

638

30

Shivalik

North-Western

2003

Uttarakhand

5,405

1,610

31

Uttar Pradesh

North-Western

2009

Uttar Pradesh

744

32

Total

 

 

 

 

69,583

21,370

 

Elephant Corridor

    • Elephant corridor is the narrow strips of forested lands which connects larger elephant habitats with significant elephant populations. It acts as a conduit for the movement of elephants between the elephant habitat. It is necessary to enhance species survival and birth rate of the elephant population in the wild.
    • There are around 88 elephant corridors in India out of which 20 are in South India, 12 in North Western India, 14 in North West Bengal, 20 in Central India and 22 in North Eastern India. About 77.3% of these corridors are regularly used by the elephants.
    • One-third of these corridors are of high ecological priority and other two third are of medium priority.
    • These elephant habitats are facing threats due to their fragmentation. This problem is severe in areas of Northern West Bengal followed by North Western India, North Eastern India and Central India. This fragmentation was least in South India.
Threats to Elephant Corridors
      • Habitat loss leading to fragmentation and destruction caused by developmental activities like construction of buildings, roads, railways, holiday resorts and the fixing solar energised electric fencing, etc. This often results in conflicts with humans, due to elephants raiding or destroying crops.
      • Mining activities such as coal mining and iron ore mining have been described as single biggest threats to elephant corridor in Central India.
      • Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, are mineral-rich states, but also have the highest number of elephant corridors in the country, which makes them known for elephant-man conflicts.
      • There is also a serious poaching problem, as elephant ivory from the tusks is extremely valuable.
      • Elephants need extensive grazing grounds and most reserves cannot accommodate them. If protected areas are not large enough, elephants may search for food elsewhere.
Mitigation
      • Fusion of the corridors with nearby protected areas wherever feasible; in other cases, declaration as Ecologically Sensitive Areas or conservation reserves to grant protection.
      • During the process of securing a corridor, monitoring for animal movement have to be carried out; depending on the need, habitat restoration work shall also be done.
      • Securing the corridors involves sensitising local communities to the option of voluntarily relocation outside the conflict zones to safer areas.
      • Preventing further fragmentation of the continuous forest habitat by encroachment from urban areas.
Project Elephant along the India-Bangladesh border in Assam
      • The India Bangladesh border in Assam is being completely fenced to prevent an illegal influx of migrants. However, this has created a problem for the movement of elephants who frequently travel through the borders of India and Bangladesh. Therefore in order to allow free movement of elephants, jumbo-sized gates would be constructed along the borders which have been the part of elephant corridors for several hundred years.
      • These gates would be manned by the security forces guarding the borders. The forest department personnel would keep track of the movement of elephants and they would inform the border guards to open the gates for the herds to cross the border safely. There is a proposal of surveillance mechanism to keep track of the suspicious movements through these corridors.
      • The elephants need a large Habitat for their survival and therefore they have been migrating in the neighbouring forests of Bangladesh from Assam and Meghalaya. Any obstruction on the seasonal migration routes of elephants has often lead to man-animal conflict leading to loss of lives and damages to crops and property.
      • There are around 5000 elephants in Assam and another 1800 in Meghalaya. There are 6 elephant corridors along the India Bangladesh border in these northeastern states. The efforts of Wildlife Trust of India to restore the traditional migratory routes of elephants have been blocked by construction of boundary fences. Construction of Jumbo gates is seen as a solution to this problem. However, these gates should be long enough with sufficient cover for elephants to cross through them.
      • Elephants use entire forest along the borders for their movement, but once they know about a safe route to pass through, then they are smart enough to use these gates as their corridors.

Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) Program

    • Mandated by COP resolution of CITES, MIKE program started in South Asia in the year 2003 with following purpose:Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) Program, Specialised Program for wildlife
        • To provide information needed for elephant range States to make appropriate management and enforcement decisions, and to build institutional capacity within the range States for the long-term management of their elephant populations.
    • The main objective of MIKE program, a Specialised Projects for Wildlife, are –
        • To measure levels and trends in the illegal hunting of elephants;
        • To determine the factors which are responsible for such changes, and to assess in particular about the impact of decisions of the conference of parties to CITES responsible for such changes.
        • To determine the factors causing or associated with such changes, and to try and assess in particular to what extent observed trends are a result of any decisions taken by the Conference of the Parties to CITES.

Elephant – 8 Ministerial Meeting

    • The Elephant- 8 ministerial meeting has the representation of all three species of elephant’s i.e. Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), African Bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), and African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis).
    • The ministerial meeting has the participation of policymakers, wildlife conservationists, scientists, and historians, experts from art and culture from the participating countries.
    • The discussions in the ministerial meeting cover several issues under three basics themes which include –
        • Science and conservation,
        • Management and conservation, and
        • The cultural and ethical perspectives of conservation.
    • The E-8 countries have agreed to take necessary steps for the protection and conservation of elephants.
    • They have also decided to actively pursue a common agenda in order to ensure the long-term welfare, protection and survival of all the species of elephants in all the elephant range countries.

“Haathi Mere Saathi”

    • Ministry of environment and forests (MOEF) in partnership with Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) has launched a campaign called Haathi Mere Saathi. The campaign aims to improve the conservation, protection and welfare of elephants in India.
    • It was launched at Elephant- 8 ministerial meeting which was held in Delhi on 24th may 2011.
    • The countries who are the part of the Elephant- 8 ministerial meeting are India, Botswana, the Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Thailand.
    • It aims at increasing awareness among people and developing friendship, companionship between people and elephants.

The campaign mascot ‘Gaju’

    • The campaign focuses on various target audience groups including locals near elephant habitats, youth, and policy makers, among others.
    • It envisions setting up of Gajah (the elephant) centers in elephant landscapes across the country to spread awareness on their plight and invoke people’s participation in addressing the threats to them.
    • The campaign plans to ensure capacity building of law enforcement agencies at the ground level to enhance protection of elephants, and to advocate for the policies in favor of elephants.
    • The elephant task force (ETF) which was constituted by the Ministry of Environment and Forest has recommended the campaign to Take Gajah (the elephant) to the Prajah (the people) in order to increase public awareness and their participation in the conservation and welfare of elephants.
    • India has around 25000 – 29000 elephants in the wild. However, the tuskers (male) in India are as threatened as the Tigers as there are only around 1200 tusker elephants left in India.

Elephant as the National Heritage Animal of India

    • The elephant has been declared as the national heritage animal by the government of India in 2010 after the recommendations of the standing committee on national board for wildlife. This was to ensure sufficient protection for elephants before its number fall to panic levels as it had happened in case of tigers.
    • A proposed National elephant conservation authority (NECA) on the lines with NTCA has been proposed to be constituted by amending the Wildlife Protection Act 1972.

 

So, this was all about Project Tiger and Project Elephant in Specialised Projects for Wildlife.

In the next post (Click here), we will study about some more Specialised Projects for Wildlife conservation.

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