Government Schemes and Programs

Ministry of Jal Shakti – Dept. of Drinking Water & Sanitation

Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation

About Ministry

Ministry of Jal Shakti is a ministry under Government of India which was formed in May 2019. This was formed by merging of two ministries –

  • Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation
    • The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation was a ministry of the Government of India formed in 2011. From May 2019, the ministry has been merged with the Ministry of Jal Shakti. The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation was the nodal department for the overall policy, planning, funding and coordination of programmes of drinking water and sanitation in the country. The ministry was responsible for the implementation of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in rural India.
  • Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation 
    • In May 2019, this ministry was merged with Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation to form the Ministry of Jal Shakti. The Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation is the apex body for formulation and administration of rules and regulations relating to the development and regulation of the water resources in India.



    • Launched on 2nd October, 2014
    • The campaign aims to achieve the vision of a ‘Clean India’ by 2nd October 2019, marking the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.
    • Launched, under two sub-mission –
        1. SBM Gramin (Rural) – implemented by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation
        2. SBM Urban – implemented by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs
    • Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation
    • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019
    • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education
    • Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation
    • Develop, wherever required, community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas
    • Create significant positive impact on gender and promote social inclusion by improving sanitation especially in marginalized communities.
Salient Features
  • Strategy
    • The Strategy is to move towards a ‘Swachh Bharat’ by making it a massive mass movement.
    • For purposes of effective planning and implementation of SBM(G), it is proposed that ‘district‘ be considered the base unit of intervention
    • Implementation Framework of each State be prepared with a road map of activities covering the three important phases necessary for the Programme:
        1. Planning – A project proposal shall be prepared by the District, incorporating Gram Panchayat-wise details and scrutinized, and consolidated by the State Government into a State Plan.
        2. Implementation – This includes advocacy and communication, financing and toilet construction. Setting up Rapid Action Learning Unit (RALU)
        3. Sustainability – This includes sustaining ODF communities and verification.
    • A five-tier implementation mechanism should be set up at the National/ State/ District/ Block/ Village level
    • Corporate houses should be encouraged to participate as an essential part of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
    • Start-up activities – This includes updating baselines surveys, orientation of key personnel and preparation of plans.
    • IEC (Information, Education and Communication) Component: Focus of SBM-G is on Behaviour Change Communication (BCC). It is not a ‘standalone’ separate activity, community action and generation of peer pressure on the outliers is key to it.
    • Capacity Building
    • Construction of Individual Household Latrines – While selecting eligible households for providing incentive under SBM(G), order of preference shall be – BPL followed by SC/SC APL households
    • Availability of Sanitation Material – through Rural Sanitary Marts (RSM), Production Centers (PC), Self Help Groups (SHG) and Community Sanitary Complex (CSC).
    • Provision of Revolving Fund at the District – can also be accessed by APL households not covered by incentives under the guidelines.
    • Equity and inclusion – This also includes raise awareness and skills on Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM), specifically amongst adolescent girls in schools.
    • Solid and Liquid Resource Management
    • Administrative Charges – States shall be permitted to utilize funds under this component as per requirement
    • The monitoring also uses a robust community led system, like Social Audit. Community-based monitoring and vigilance committees will help in creating peer pressure.
    • Foot soldiers of Swachh Bharat: An army of ‘foot soldiers’ or ‘Swachhagrahis’, earlier known as ‘Swachhata Doots’ is developed.


Swachhata Action Plan (SAP)

      • All the ministries/Departments are to bring Swachhta as an element in their schemes and activities from 2017, so that each of them and the institutions, corporations and offices under them can contribute to achieve Swachh Bharat.
      • To monitor the implementation of SAP, a web based portal has been launched.

Swachh Swastha Sarvatra

      • A joint initiative of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Drinking water and Sanitation.
        • To achieve better health outcomes through improved sanitation and increased awareness and healthy lifestyles.
Salient Features
        • The initiative involves focusing on WASH (Water, sanitation & hygiene) parameters
        • The three key components of Swachh Swasth Sarvatra are:
          1. Community Health Centres (CHCs) in ODF blocks will be supported to achieve Kayakalp certification (a certificate for high standard of sanitation and hygiene).
          2. Gram Panchayat of Kayakalp Primary Health Centres (PHCs) prioritized to become ODF
          3. Training in WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) of CHC/PHC nominees
        • The MDWS will undertake ODF activities in the Gram Panchayat of Kayakalp award winning PHCs and will provide WASH training to a nominee of those CHCs and PHCs.

Swachh Iconic Places (SIP)

      • A multi-stakeholder initiative focusing on cleaning up 100 places across India that are “iconic” due to their heritage, religious and/or cultural significance.
        • to improve the cleanliness conditions at these places to a distinctly higher level
        • This initiative is in partnership with concerned state and local governments and 3 Central Ministries of Housing and Urban Affairs, M/o Tourism and M/o Culture with MDWS being the nodal ministry.
Salient Features
        • 100 places across India have been identified as “iconic” due to their heritage, religious and/or cultural significance.
        • The SIP initiative is to improve the cleanliness conditions at these places to a distinctly higher level.
        • So far in first two phases, 20 iconic places have been taken up.
        • All these 20 Iconic Sites have designated PSUs or corporates for financial and technical support.
        • Sri Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple in Madurai has been adjudged the cleanest iconic place in the country.
        • Ten new iconic sites, namely, Raghavendra Swamy Temple (Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh); Hazardwari Palace (Murshidabad, West Bengal); Brahma Sarovar Temple (Kurukshetra, Haryana); Vidur Kuti (Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh); Mana village (Chamoli, Uttarakhand); Pangong Lake (Leh-Ladakh, J&K); Nagvasuki Temple (Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh); ImaKeithal/market (Imphal, Manipur); Sabarimala Temple (Kerala); and Kanvashram (Uttarakhand) have been taken up under Phase III.

Swachh Shakti, 2019

      • The initiative was launched by MDWS in 2017
        • To recognise and felicitate women sarpanch, swachhagrahi, and women champions for their contribution towards Swachha Bharat.
Salient Features
        • First Swachh Shakti program was launched in 2017 at Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
        • The second Swachh Shakti event, Swachh Shakti-2018 was held at Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh.
        • The third edition has been inaugurated from Kurukshetra.

Rashtriya Swachhta Kendra (RSK)

      • This was announced by the Hon’ble PM on April 10, 2017, during the centenary celebrations of Champaran Satyagraha.
      • It will be located opposite to Mahatma Gandhi’s Samadhi at Rajghat. RSK is planned to disseminate all information on sanitation matters and advanced toilet technology among people.
      • It will also showcase ongoing SBM efforts across the country as well as history of sanitation in India, inter-ministerial coordination initiatives, interactive programme and a Swachhta learning centre.

Swachhta Pakhwada

        • Swachhta Pakhwada started in April 2016.
        • Bringing a fortnight of intense focus on the issues and practices of Swachhta by engaging GOI Ministries/Departments in their jurisdictions.
Salient Features
        • An annual calendar is pre-circulated among the Ministries to help them plan for the Pakhwada activities.
        • The Ministries observing Swachhta Pakhwada are monitored closely using online monitoring system of Swachhta Samiksha where action plans, images, videos related to Swachhta activities are uploaded and shared.

Swachh Survekshan Gramin

      • Swachh Survekshan is a ranking exercise to assess rural (and urban areas) for their levels of cleanliness and active implementation of Swachh Bharat Mission initiatives, in a timely and innovative manner.
Conducted by
        • Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation – in rural areas.
        • Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs – in urban areas
        • It is a third party verification survey, undertaken by the Quality Council of India (QCI) to assess the present status of urban & rural sanitation in all States and UTs.
        • To create awareness amongst all sections of society To encourage large scale citizen participation
        • To foster a spirit of healthy competition among states, districts, villages, towns/cities to improve their service delivery to citizens.
        • For creating a garbage free and open defecation free villages & cities, by emphasizing the importance of working together.
        • Swachh Sarvekshan Grameen-2018 – 6,980 villages in 698 districts.
        • Direct observation of sanitation in public places: 30%
        • Citizen’s feedback on sanitation parameters: 35%
        • Service-level progress on sanitation: 35%
        • The Swachh Sarvekshan Gramin awards, 2018 were also announced, where Haryana was ranked the cleanest state, Satara ranked the cleanest district, Uttar Pradesh was rewarded for maximum citizens’ participation, and Nashik was rewarded for district with maximum citizens’ participation.

Swachhta Hi Seva Campaign (Cleanliness is Service)

      • It is a fortnight-long sanitation campaign to highlight the cleanliness initiative, Swachh Bharat Mission. The 2nd edition of Swachhta Hi Seva Campaign was held recently.
      • It seeks to mobilize people to get directly involved with the ‘Jan Andolan’ (national movement) of Swachh Bharat Mission by offering shramdaan (voluntary contribution) for swachhta.
      • Shramdaan will involve activities such as construction of toilets, making surroundings free from open defecation, cleaning of public and tourist places etc.
      • It reinforces the concept of “Sanitation as everyone’s business”


        • MDWS launched the Galvanising Organic Bio-Agro Resource dhan or “GOBAR dhan” scheme on 30th April 2018, at Karnal, Haryana.
        • Formally called Galvanizing Organic Bio-Agro Resources.
        • Keeping villages clean while increasing the income of farmers and cattle owners by promoting local entrepreneurs to convert cattle dung, and other organic resources, to biogas and organic manure.
Nodal Ministry
        • Ministry for Drinking Water and Sanitation
Salient Features
        • It is Key component of the ODF-plus (Open Defecation Free-plus) strategy under Swachh Bharat Mission.
        • Under GOBAR-DHAN scheme, solid waste of dung and fields will be changed into compost and fuels such as biogas and bio-CNG.
        • It will Promotes village sanitation & health, generate clean energy, create new employment opportunities, additional agriculture & rural incomes etc.
        • Funding – Scheme is funded under Solid & Liquid Waste Management component of SBM-Gramin. (Centre : State – 60:40)

Ganga Gram Project

        • Ganga Gram Project was launched under the National Clean Ganga Mission – Namami Gange Programme
        • Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation
        • Holistic sanitation based integrated development of all the 4470 villages on the banks of River Ganga, with active participation of the villagers.
 Salient Features
        • Project envisages solid and liquid waste management, renovation of ponds and water resources, water conservation projects, organic farming, horticulture, and promotion of medicinal plants.
        • In August 2017, with active cooperation of the 5 Ganga States (Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand & West Bengal), the Ministry declared all 4,470 villages Open Defecation Free (ODF}
        • Subsequent to this, the Ministry and State Governments identified 24 villages to be taken up as a pilot project to transform them into Adarsh “Ganga Grams” by December, 2018.
        • Ganga Swachhata Manch, a forum of individuals, academicians, civil society organisations etc. has also been created for awareness creation, knowledge sharing, learning and advocacy for the Ganga Gram Project.

Darwaza Band Media Campaign

      • This is an aggressive mass media campaign by Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation aiming at Behaviour Change.
      • Supported by the World Bank.
      • It is designed to encourage behaviour change in men who have toilets but are not using them.
      • Recently, the Swachh Bharat Mission (G) launched the ‘Darwaza Band -Part 2’ campaign which focuses on sustaining the open defecation free status of villages across the country.

Mahatma Gandhi International Sanitation Convention (MGISC)

      • MGISC brought together Ministers of sanitation and sector specialists from around the world. The participating countries shared sanitation success stories and best practices, along with learning from the experience of the Swachh Bharat Mission.
      • The 4-day Convention included a field visit, plenary sessions, Parallel Technical sessions and Ministerial Dialogues.
Satyagraha Se Swachhagraha campaign (3rd to 10th April, 2018)
      • The Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation, in coordination with the Government of Bihar, organized a week long campaign “Satyagraha Se Swachhagraha” in Bihar, culminating in East Champaran on 10th April, 2018, where over 20,000 Swachhagrahis came together and to “trigger” Bihar.



  • The Jal Shakti Abhiyan, launched by the Union Jal Shakti Minister has begun from 1st July, 2019.
  • The Jal Shakti Abhiyan is a campaign for water conservation and water security in the country.
    • to “bring sensitivity on the subject of water conservation, and give it a focussed approach”
    • to create a baseline of water
    • to increase awareness among people to conserve water
Salient Features
    • The campaign would run from July 1 to September 15 in States receiving rainfall during the south-west monsoon, while States receiving rainfall in the retreating or north-east monsoon would be covered from October 1 to November 30.
    • It is a collaborative effort of various ministries of the Government of India and state governments, being coordinated by the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) that comes under the Jal Shakti Ministry.
    • An important part of this Abhiyan is that it will focus on five aspects – water conservation and rainwater harvesting, renovation of traditional and other water bodies, reuse of water and recharging of structures, watershed development, and intensive afforestation.
    • The water conservation interventions will also be supplemented with special interventions including the development of block and district water conservation plans, promotion of efficient water use for irrigation and better choice of crops through Krishi Vigyan Kendras.
    • Implementation
      • In urban areas, plans with time-bound targets will be developed for wastewater reuse for industrial and agricultural purposes.
      • Plans will be developed for at least one urban water body for groundwater recharge in the block or the city. Scientists and IITs will also be mobilised at the national level to support the teams
      • Despite this huge Central deployment for a scheme on water, which is purely a State subject under the Constitution, this was “not at all a top-down scheme.
      • Over the next two and a half months, the campaign will push to implement existing water conservation schemes and increase awareness in water-stressed districts and blocks.



    • Centrally Sponsored Scheme (50:50)
    • Under implementation since 1972-73. Started as Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP), now renamed as NRDWP in 2009.
    • Ensuring sustainability (source) of water availability in terms of potability, adequacy, convenience, affordability and equity.
    • To realise ‘Har Ghar Jal’ by 2030-a component of SDG. Also, access to safe and adequate drinking water within reasonable distance
    • Provide drinking water facility, especially piped water supply, to Gram Panchayats that have achieved open defecation free status on priority basis;
    • Ensure all government schools and anganwadis have access to safe drinking water;
    • Provide access to information through online reporting mechanism with information placed in public domain to bring in transparency and informed decision making.
Salient Features
    • Focused Area
        1. Piped water supply,
        2. Coverage of Open Defecation Free (ODF) declared villages, SAGY-GPs (Sansad Adardh Gram Yojana Gram Panchayat), Ganga GPs, Integrated Action Plan (IAP) districts, Border out Posts (BOP) with piped water supply and Institutional set up for proper O&M of water supply assets etc.
    • This is a centrally sponsored scheme (50:50; 90:10 for NE and Himalayan States), started in 2009.
    • It has been restructured in 2017 to make it outcome-based, competitive and better monitored with increased focus on sustainability (functionality).
    • The restructured scheme has provided more flexibility to the states release of fund under various components.
    • The scheme is to be continued co-terminus with the 14th Finance Commission cycle e. from 2017-18 to 2019-2020.
    • Funds are earmarked for North-East States, Desert Development Programme (DDP), and Natural Calamities for providing assistance to States/ UTs and Water Quality for allocation to States with chemically contaminated quality affected habitations and JE/ AES affected high priority districts with bacteriological contamination.
    • National Water Quality Sub Mission (NWQSM) on Arsenic and Fluoride has been started to provide safe drinking water to about 28,000 affected habitations in the country by March 2021.



    • Launched in 2008-09
    • To provide value and quality addition to the on-going National Rural Drinking Water Supply Programme by installation of Stand Alone Purification systems in rural schools
Salient Features
    • Implementation – by State Governments through the Gram Panchayat/Village Water and Sanitation Committees/Self Help Groups/School Committees etc.
    • The ownership of the water purification system lies with school authorities, while funds are provided to the village panchayats by the State Governments for operating this program.
    • Village Panchayats to ensure that drinking water available in schools meets the minimum prescribed standards in terms of quality, potability & quantity.



    • Swajal is a community owned drinking water programme for sustained drinking water supply, especially in Aspirational districts.
    • to ensure availability of clean drinking water to every household round year and also generate employment
    • 90% of the project cost to be contributed by Government (Centre & States) 10% of the project cost to be contributed by the community.
    • Operations & Management – by the local villagers
Salient Features
    • It is a community demand driven, decentralized, single village, preferably solar powered, mini Piped Water Supply (PWS) programme for the 117 aspirational districts identified by NITI Aayog.
    • Gram Panchayats in partnership with rural communities and State sectoral agencies would be involved in the execution of the scheme and also operate and maintain the scheme. The programme would also sustain ODF status.
    • The scheme will train hundreds of rural technicians for operation and maintenance of Swajal units.
    • 2 Swajal projects launched so far- Bhikampura village, Rajasthan & Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand.


For Notes on Schemes of other department of Ministry of Jal Shakti i.e. Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation you can click here.

To read and learn about Government Schemes and Programs related to other Ministries, Click Here.  (Notes on all Government Ministries Schemes and Programs)

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